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Lake Champlain toponymy

( Work in progress)

Names on Lake Champlain
This document was prepared by Pierre Biron. Search(research) on the place-names. For map, see the link at the foot of the page!

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Did you know?...
You will find many French names around Lake Champlain. This part of USA, like many others, used to be French
North America before 1760. Half of the territory was French, now the french speaking population is concetrated in the province of Québec.
See history, and map 1750

First, a few words on Lake Champlain

Sometimes referred to as one of the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain is the sixth largest freshwater lake in the United States. The lake has approximately 587 miles of shoreline stretching 120 miles from its southern most point near Whitehall, New York to its outlet into the Richelieu River in Quebec. It is 11.2 miles across at its widest point, and has 440 square miles of surface area. The deepest part of the lake is close to 400 feet. It forms the border between the Adirondack Mountains of New York State and the Green Mountains of Vermont. Great lake for sailing


The origins of the first stained glass is lost in history. Techniques of stained glass window construction were described by the monk Theophilus who wrote a how to for craftsmen about 1100 AD. The Gothic age produced the great cathedrals of Europe.

To day, Nicole Barry, our sailing instructor has a stained glass work shop. See her works.

Montreal Jazz Festival

Festival internationnal de Jazz de Montréal

Near Lake Champlain where we have our sailing courses, you can visit Montreal. A 100 km drive and you will find the second largest francophone city in the world. The following Web site ( will help you find many aspects of the Montreal activities


Now the origin of the names...

Adirondacks, mountains - NY origin: name of a tribe

Albany - NY origin: reappointed so for the Duke of Albany, during its taking possession by the English people on 3rd of September 1664, at the same time as New Amsterdam became New York.
· Dutch Place-name: Beverswyck ·
- English Place-name: Fort Orange . Reminder : discovered by Henry HUDSON in 1609 by going back up Hudson on is boat " Half Moon". In 1613, the Dutch had a fur exchange post and concluded a treaty with the Iroquois - The Fort leaders Orange were Arendt von CORLAER and Godfrey DELLIUS.
- After 1664 of Dutch sta nonetheless and tried to colonize: capt. Jacobus de WARM establishes an outpost to Chimney Pt VT; capt. SCHUYLER establishes a camp at Otter Creek.
- - In 1807 the 1st boat sails from New York to Albany

Alburgh Tongue - VT
· French Toponyme : Pointe Algonquin

Arnold Bay - VT Origin: Benedict ARNOLD Reminder: THE American ARNOLD there burned his fleet in escape October 13 1776. 2 days after his defeat and 25 hours to the hands of the governor anglo-canadian Guy CARLETON; it was the first naval battle opposing anglo-american and anglo-canadians on the lake. The fleet was composed of the schooner "Congress" and 4 gun boats.The beach was called Adams Landing

Ausable Point - NY
French toponyme : Pointe au Sable from the french name "rivière au Sable", river of sand. Reminder: Of The cascade known under the name of Ausable Chasm constitute a tourist attraction.
Situation : South of Valcour Island

Barn Harbor (Rock baen Harbor) - NY · probable English Toponyme: Rock Barren Harbor [Bellico p417] Site: lat 44 13', opposite Mile Pt and Basin Harbor VT

Basin Harbor - VT · French Toponyme: Bassin [1720] Reminder: The 7 juil 1734 this region was granted as seigneurie, to Sieurs de Contrecoeur, father and sons. This natural harbor is part of a " grant " granted later to the family BEACH of which descending them exploit since a long time the Basin Harbor Club that was formerly a favorite site of "villégiature" for the social elite and politics of the New England, just as the lake George.

Île au sang - Qc English Toponyme: Bloody Island

Bouquet River - NY French toponyme Rivière Boquet - Riv Boquette [Franquet 1752] Site: Passes to Willsboro. It joins the lake north of Essex, lat 44 21'. Reminder: in 1815, the American paddle steam boat "Vermont" (125' ) sank when the tree of the motor went trough the hull. , the recovered wreck transported to Ausable Chasm in 1953 to be exposed, was destroyed to give place to a commercial camping [Bellico p419].

Brattleboro - CT · English Toponyme: Fort Dummer. Reminder: This entry is included here because they used lake Champlain for access to Brattleboro.

Bulwaga Bay - NY · English Toponyme: West Bay ((carte Brassier 1776)

Burton Island - VT · English Toponyme: Isles of White, that included Ball Island. Site: just to the SE of St Albans' Pt

Button Bay - VT · English Toponyme: Button Mould Bay Origin: the stones there have often the forms of buttons

Camel's Hump - VT · French Toponyme: Lion lying Site: mountainous peak of the Green Mountains (Appalaches), visible from the lake Champlain, 4083 feet.

Carleton's Prize Island - VT Origin: British Guy CARLETON, become Lord DORCHESTER, governor of Canada Reminder: Bombarded uselessly towards the 12 Oct 1776, confused with a American vessel by the crew of CARLETON during the first naval battle opposing anglo-canadiens and anglo-american on the lake.

Cedar Island - VT · French Toponyme: "Ile aux Cèdres " : Island the Cedars [map: Franquet 1752] Site: in Converse Bay

Chambly, Fort Chambly- QC · French Toponyme: Strong st-louis Origin: Captain Jacques of Chambly, lord of the place Reminder: Erected
1665, burned 1702, rebuilds 1711 [Franquet 1752] against the Iroquois

Chambly, canal - QC Reminder: the construction spreads itself of 1831 to 1843, slowed down by of financial and political problems

Champlain, Lake -NY, VT, Qc · Different names. French Toponymes: Lac Champlain (1609) - Lac des Iroquois (1733) - Lac Chambly (1733) Origin: Samuel de CHAMPLAIN named the lake on July 4 1609 at Crown Point, near Ticonderoga, after having defeated the Iroquois. Reminder: the British Henry HUDSON, exploring for the Dutch East India Company, cam up the Hudson river a few months after the arrival of CHAMPLAIN by the Richelieu, found the existence of the lake and of the " vast regions " to the North to the St-Laurent. Nor Champlain, nor Hudson was aware of the exploits of the other. The Dutch one had baptized New Netherlands these " vast regions ". · English Toponyme: Lake Corlaer Origin: Arendt von CORLAER,

Fort magistrate
Orange Reminder: The Dutch installed Fort Orange (Albany after the 3rd September 1664), made several exploration trips to the N and named the lake "Corlaer" in honour of their governor ·
Petoubouque - Patawabouke Toponymes Abenaki: (waters in the middle, between the two; an earth deterioration and of water) ·
Caniaderiguarunte Toponymes Iroquois: (the carries entry to the country) - - Reggio (name of Chief Agnier (Mohawk) drowned in front of Rock Split NY in a storm) ·
Skanetoghrowahna - Kakchoquahna other AmerindianToponymes

Champlain - NY Origin: Samuel of CHAMPLAIN Reminder: The 1st settler arrived in 1785, the town was constituted in 1788 - During the war of 1812 … between American and Canadian (British), the British fleet (Murry), while returning from Plattsburgh to Ile aux Noix, in August 1813, burnt the American installations in Champlain : barracks, blockhouses, warehouse [Bellico p300]. Just before the big naval battle of the 11 seven 1814 in front of Plattsburgh, 4500 American troops camped in Champlain and Chazy [Bellico p. 305]

Chazy - NY Origin: Nicolas of CHAZY Reminder: Varying: CHOIZY. He was junior officer in the "regiment de Carignan", posted at fort "Ste-Anne" on the Island Lamothe, nephew of the governor TRACY; it had renounced the Huguenot religion (Calvinist) August 28 1665. During a simple hunt expedition on the banks of the riv CHAZY situated opposite to fort Ste-Anne, accompanied by some other soldiers of the garnison on vacation and feeling in security because of a supposed truce with the Iroquois, Chazy was killed by Agniers (Mohawks) July 19 1666. The assassin, an Agnier chef, found himself at the same table with governor TRACY, at the time of negotiations between Quebec and the Mohawks. Being drunk, the Agnier bragged of killing Chazy …
Here how the searching interpreter Nicolas PERROT relates the facts [p113] :
" Monsieur de TRACY GIVING A feast, said at the TABLE HOW MUCH he missed HIS NEPVEU . THIS Agagier chief, lifted HIS ARM BOASTING HIGHLY and shouted that he had killed Nicolas de Chazy]… THIS OUTRAGED INSOLENCE broke the PEACE. THIS INDISCREET Agagniers would never kill again, … He WAS STRANGLED IN PRESENCE [of other Agniers] AND … [October 1666] 1 400 MEN, SOLDIERS, Canadian and ALGONKINS went back on the lake …
Reminder on the town: there would have been houses of French before 1749, abandoned that year, to the embouchure of the Chazy [according to the Swedish visitor Peter KALM]. John LAFRAMBOISE and two other settlers are the 1st inhabitants in 1763. Hunted by the English in 1776, life returns in 1784. The site becomes 1804 distinct towns of the county of Clinton.

Chimney Point - VT Origin and reminder: March 26 1690 Jacobson de WARM, captain of Dutch origin to the account of the English, established a small fort of rocks at Chimney point, first English occupation on the lake Champlain. August 19, 1730 the fort is taken by the French, directed by Michel d'AGNEAU, it was rebuilt and enlarged, (2 officers and 30 soldiers). Then settlers install themselves around as well as on the island of the Boiteaux, since disappeared between Hospital Creek and Chimney Pt. About 300 settlers in 1756 [Hill p38] The French will burn it later. Only remains of the fort, fireplaces of darkened rocks, from which the toponyme.
Pointe à la Chevelure (Chimney Pt, VT) and the fort St-Frédéric to Crown Pt, NY was part of the same French establishment. Site: to the VT opposite Crown Point NY (lat 44 02') · French Toponyme: Pointe à la Chevelure "Hair" · English Toponymes: Scalp Point

Cliff Haven - NY Site: in front of Crab Island, to the S of Cumberland Bay. Reminder: We are at the end of the French domination on the lake. 3 French vessels ordered by of Olabaratz, follow by the English LORING, scuttled themselves the 12 Oct 1759 because of the inevitable capture. One will remember that, the day before, St-Onge managed to send LORING, the English commander, aground at the Sister Islands. The English will go to raise the 3 vessels.
Colchester Point - VT · English Toponyme: Windmill Point (after 1760) · French Toponyme: Pointe du Moulin (windmill). Reminder: French former fort built before 1759; the remains of 3 houses (foundations of fireplaces) were found in 1789, those of 2 skeletons in 1867.

Cole Island - NY · French Toponyme: Isle Jogues · English Toponyme: Jogues Island Origin of the English toponyme: The father Jesuit JOGUES Reminder: in August 1642 it is captured to the embouchure of the Richelieu, tortured by Iroquois to the island Lamotte then to Cole Island where one pulls out its hair, his beard and its nails before chewing its fingers (the pope will grant him the permission to celebrate The mass without its 10 fingers); after he will be kept 13-14 months as slave in an Amerindian family, from which it will be liberated thanks to the ransom offered by the Dutch magistrate von CORLAER and a Lutheran minister. It will be recaptured and murdered. Site: just to the South of Westport

Coopersville - NY · French Toponyme: Crow Site: now in Chaplain. Reminder: This place was granted by the American congress to the French Canadian veterans that had fought side of the Americans against the British during the secession war taking to the American independence. (To see also " Le petit Canada républicain ") " veterans such as the Tremblay, Poulin and Asselin established themselves on these lands formerly invade by the soldiers of Montcalm. They cut trees, prepared the earth, built their wood houses round and became farmers. The Sundays they met for the rosary. There was born the town of the Crow (Coopersville). " [B Ouimet, MSGCF 1986 v37 p24]
Here the typical history of two settlers, Antoine PAULIN and JB PELLETIER : By an act of May 11 1782 the state of NY grants concessions (grants) in the NE and the center of the county of Clinton to the refugees and soldiers originating Canada. The batches have 80 or 420 acres while 5 000 acres are divided between the 15 officers and soldiers that fought on the American side. It took 4 years to prepare the land. The American government paid the transportation of their belongings. n près de Grenoble à St Paul de Vances
The capt. Antoine PAULIN, born close to Grenoble at St Paul of Vance, had left Chambly in June 1776, fought of the side of the Americans, was dismissed at half salary on the 1st July 1783, sent to Albany in 1783 then to Fishkill (between Albany and NY) the same year, received a concession covering 900 acres of the 2 sides of the Chazy river. He settled in 1786 in a log house he had built himself.
The youngest son, Pierre, born in Corbeau (Coopersville)(translation crow), married in Quebec then came back to Corbeau, and had many children. The neighbours are French Catholics, often former officers of the regiment of HAZEN. At the time of the 1st American census in 1790, one quotes " Anthony POLING, marries, 2 sons, 4 girls.
One rediscovers PAULAIN, POLAND, PAULING… on the of the grave rocks of Coopersville of which the current church was erected in 1844. One writes also Paulein, Pollin… [To See the telephone book of Clinton County for the varying] Many French names are found in the cemetery in front of the church on the river side.
Jean Baptist PELLETIER, been born 1783 St Denis QC, married in l'Acadie Qc to Françoise PAULIN born 1783 Albany NY. Settled in Corbeau close to PAULIN with 2 girls and 4 sons.

Corlaer Bay - NY Origine : Arendt van Corlaer
English toponyme : Stolly Bay (Brassier 1815) - Douglass Bay French toponyme : Baye Corlaer - Corlard (sic) (Nicolas Perrot)
Site : au SW of Schuyler Island, in front of Port Douglas
In 1643 the Jesuit JOGUES, prisoner of the Mohawks since 13-14 months, is brought to Schenectady NY, by the magnanimity of Arendt van Corlaer gov. of Orange (Albany), human man, liked and well considered by the Dutch, the English and the French, (discoverer for the English). Helped by the Lutheran father, Jan MEGAPOLENSIS, helped to pay the ransom to liberate him from the Iroquois. He was brought to Manhattan, then to England and later to France.
In 1666 CORLAER saved the French of a slaughters by Iroquois; in fact the governor COURCELLES had returned to Crown Point with 500 men suffering from cold and of not being used to snow shoes. They had lost 11 men in an ambuscade close to Schenectady when van CORLAER saved them from the Iroquois and gave them the food for the return to Canada. In thanks, CORLAER received an invitation to visit COURCELLES in Qc city but he accidentally drowned in the south part of the lake (between Otter Creek and Schuyler Island) while wanting to return home in 1667.

Crab Island - NY · French Toponyme: Isle St Michel (map Brassier 1776). Site: Just to the N of Valcour Island
Reminder : American sailors killed during the battle of Plattsburgh in Oct 1814, buried recalled by a monument in forms of an obelisk, accessible by water summer time. Sometimes accessible certain winters when the lake freezes to this place. Well visible island from Bluff Pt at the Clinton Community College [a *** point of observation]. See Net site for new published book

Crane Point - VT Site: opposite Port Henry NY

Crown Point NY ·
Dutch Toponyme : Crun Point . French Toponyme: Pointe de la Couronne
Reminder: Site of fort St-Frédéric (1732-1759; previously named Fort de Pieux, fort de la Pointe à la Chevelure, fort Beauharnois, fort Maurepas) in l'honneur of Frédéric de Maurepas, then minister of the navy in France, in charge of the colonies. One added the Holy word to please the clergy. Erection: begins in 1731 by the French. Destruction: In July 1759, the commander BOURLAMAQUE blows up Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga), takes refuge at St Frédéric. He destroys on July 31 1759, then takes refuge to the N at l'Île aux Noix (St-Paul 20 miles north of the border). The English will rebuild the fort under the name of Crown Pt. In 1736 there was a considerable maritime traffic between St-jean (on the Richelieu) and Fort-Frédéric. Supplies and weapons originating from France and Qc were transported by boat. This was a French colony of 1734 to 1759, English of 1760 to 1777, then American. Crown Pt was constituted in town in 1788. [Beauregard p17] Before, this region was in 1609 the site of the 1st fight against the Mohawks by Champlain: having just discovered (sic) the lake in an expedition done to the request of his allies Algonquins. The expedition arrived by the Richelieu with 2 French (CHAUVINISTIC and DUPONT) and of 60 Algonquins. They engaged a fight on the 30th of July against 200 Iroquois Agniers (Mohawks) (at 43 degrees of latitude), therefore close to Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and some goes out
conqueror by the superiority that gives him its guns. II in crazy an and done fire 4 times, killing a Chief and 2 warriors: " The effect is similar to the one of the atomic bomb on Japan. The Iroquois are absolutely terrified. White men exploit their technical superiority on the red men, colonisation …. " The prisoners are brought to the mouth of Otter Creek (then Rivière aux Loutres) for there to be tortured so cruelly that CHAMPLAIN had to finish them off. They will never forgive this humiliating defeat to the hands of the French.
Genealogical notes: In 1738 Georges-François DUBOISBERTHELOT Sieur de BEAUCOUR visits Fort St-Frédéric; he married in 1730 to Jeanne of GOUTN girl of Mathieu de GOUTN ( governor of Acadie )

Cumberland Bay - NY · English Toponymes: Plattsburgh Harbor (1815) - Cumberland Bay (1815)

Cumberland Head - NY · French Toponymes: Cape Scononton - cape Scoumonton

Cumberland point- NY · Indian-French Toponyme : Point Aquinonton

Dead Creek - NY · Indian-French Toponyme: River Scononton · French Toponymes: River St Amant

Deep Bay - NY · French Toponymes: Baye des Varseaux

Diamond Island · Sloop Island

Fort Edward, - NY Origin: rechristened in 1755 by Sir William JOHNSON in honour of the king of England [Hill p47] · English Toponyme:

Fort Lyman - Fort Nicholson. Site: to the S of Fort George, to the east of Glen Falls, on the Hudson river.

Fishkill - NY Site: just to the of Beacon on the shore E of the Hudson riv, to 125 km to the S of Albany and to 80 km to the N of NY, between Poughkeepsie and west-point (military academy). Reminder: several French Canadian veterans having fought in the American regiments of HAZEN and of LIVINGSTON were offered concessions.

Fort Cassin Pt - VT Origin: Lt Stephen CASSIN, second of Macdonough, directs the resistance the mouth of Otter Creek. Reminder: in April 1814, The Americans erected an earth wall and installed a battery of 7 canons to push back May 18 1814 the British fleet of PRING that wanted to come to block the exit of Otter Creek and prevent the war vessels under construction to Vergennes navigating to the lake. [Bellico p303] Site: 44 14' lat, mouth of Otter Creek

Four Brothers Islands · French Toponyme: Isles aux Quatre Vent (island of the four winds)(map Charlevoix 1744). · English Toponyme: Four Winds Islands (card Sauthier 1779) Reminder: in 1776 American Benedict ARNOLD ran away from the British fleet under PRINGLE

Garden Island - NY · French Toponymes: Petite Île · (same as English Toponyme: Little Island (card Brassier 1776) Site: just to the S of Valcour Island.

Fort George, - NY Site: Extreme S of the lake George

George, Lake - NY Origin: renamed in 1755 by Sir William JOHNSON [Hill p47] in honour of the king George of GB · English Toponyme: St Sacrament Lake · French Toponyme: Lac du St-Sacrement
Origin: the Jesuit JOGUES discovers the lake the day of the St-Sacrement Reminder: was frequented by Albert EINSTEIN for day sailing, and visited by Antoine de St-Exupéry and his wife Consuelo.

Grand Isle - VT · Toponyme abénaki: K'chenamehau (the big island) · French Toponyme: Grad'Isle - Pancalon Site: this municipality corresponds to South Hero

Great Ausable River - NY · French Toponyme: Rivière au Sable

Grog Harbor - NY Origin and reminder: 1rst hypothesis: This bay serves 7 juil 1756 to the capt and officer Robert ROGERS to hide smuggling alcohols (wines and brandy). It is known that the next day ROGERS engaged the 1st naval battle between French and English on the lake Champlain opposite Charlotte, VT. 2nd hypothesis: One says also as the villagers of Essex did the same in 1776 to prevent the British to get their rum [Bellico p418].

Hudson River - NY Origin: Henry Hudson Reminder: British working for the Dutch East India Co, discovers this river in 1609 few months after arrival of Champlain to the N of the lake. Hudson di not reach lake Champlain, he took possession of the vast territories to the N as far as the St Laurent on paper on be aft of the Dutch and named it New Netherlands [Map at Basin

Harbor - Beach p20]

Iberville - QC · French Toponymes: (Milles Roches) Thousand Rocks - Christieville - Bleury Origin: Pierre Lemoyne d' Iberville. Great navigator, terror of the English.

Île aux Noix - QC Origin: there was an hazel-nut tree (noisetiers) and a peasant tenant paid his rent by offering hazel-nuts to the owner of the island. Reminder: In 1759 the French Bourlamaque brougt back the men and the equipment from Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga) and St-Frederic (Crown Point) he had destroyed to be of no use to the English. In 1760, the English attacked Fort l'Île aux Noix. The lt-col William HAVILAND directed 3400 men against this fort. ROGERS directs 400 men "Rangers" at the end of August. August 28 to midnight, Bougainville abandoned, the fort, there left 40 men, walked on the shore E of the Richelieu towards St-Jean. August 29 BOUGAINVILLE burned Fort St-Jean, ran away towards Chambly. The fort was captured by ROGERS and DARBY, without fire blow, just before the 17 000 men of AMHERST, HAVILAND and MURRAY surrounded Montréal. VAUDREUIL, the governor, capitulated. After the victory, AMHERST stoped at l'Ile-aux-Noix and, on his way to the city of NY, had the fortifications dismantled.

Isle la Motte - VT · English Toponyme: Vineyard (1802) - la Motte (1815) Origin: capt Pierre de St-Paul de LA MOTTE-Lussière. Reminder: LAMOTTE of the régiment de CARIGNAN directed the construction of Fort Ste-Anne, on Isle Lamotte. He was in command of the fort from 1665 to ±1669. Situated near a natural beach, facing the mouth of the Great Chazy riv NY. It became Catholic sanctuary open in summer . Reminder: declared Grant Isle, l'île grant 1779 by the republic of Vermont. The 1st settlers came in 1785. Becomes town 1791.

Jones Point - NY · Rock Flat Pt Situates: East of the peninsula of Willsboro

Kings Bay - NY · Back Bay (Bouchette 1815) near Great Chazy river

Lacolle, blockhouse of - QC Reminder: erected in 1778, auj monument historic with visit guided in summer

Lacolle river - QC · French Toponymes: River of the glue

Ladd Point - VT · English Toponyme: Gordon's Point (1815) Site: extreme NE of South Hero

Lamoille river - VT · French Toponymes: Rivière à la Mouille (River to the Wets)- Rivière à la Moelle (1736) - Rivière à la Mouelle (1744, did the cartographer CHARLEVOIX write Mouette? Meaning Sea gull) · English Toponyme: Lamoelle river.

Laprairie - QC
QC · French toponyme- Laprairie-: La Prairie de la Madeleine [Franquet on 1752] Reminder: 1re attack by capt John SCHUYLER, brother of the chief warrant officer Peter SCHUYLER, on August 23, 1690, takes by surprise soldiers, villagers, women and children occupied to fields. 6 persons killed and 19 French prisoners, 16 buildings burned outside the fort, 150 killed cows. He goes back to Fort Orange on August 30. The 2-nd attack: in August 1-st, 1691 by the chief warrant officer Peter SCHUYLER, the son of a Dutch immigrant who had come from Amsterdam to Albany. He went at first with 120 men and numerous Amerindians up to 10 miles in S fort Chambly. Warned, the governor of Montréal, CALLIERE gathers approximately 750 men in La Prairie. Then SCHUYLER approaches by land, reaching the fort of La Prairie on a rainy night on July 31. The following morning in August 1-st, 1691 the battle undertakes and French reinforcement arrive, the Americans withdraw in good order towards Richelieu where French hide behind trees and fire at the English. They fire at the English to prevent them from joining their boats, but SCHUYLER manages all the same to run away southward and reports to his superiors " having lost 21 Christians, 16 Agniers, 6 other Indians, with 25 wounded men, killed approximately 200 man, French and Indian ". [JHG Pell, DBC p628-630]

Historical reminder: at the beginning of ( 1775-76 ) of the war of the Independence ( 1775-81 ), some French colonists decide to join the Americans with the aim of invading Canada, 2 rég were formed, steered by HAZEN and by LIVINGSTON. After a fruitless expedition to conquer the QC, these volunteers fought in NA. After the victory of the Americans, these offered to these volunteers of the concessions in NO. of the lake Champlain. And so 1-st CF to settle definitively in NY's state was the veterans of this " continental Army " having sounded the retreat and evacuated Canada in 1776. They settled them in camps in Albany and to Fishkill (between Albany and NY), they were put in leave in June, 1783. Their families were able to join them, from autumn, 1783. NY's state offered them lands near the Canadian border, they made of the clearing, they became established in Corbeau (Coopersville, see this entrance), Chazy, West-Chazy and Champlain in 1783-84.

These Canadian republicans of the lake remained attached to their religion and their children often got married and their children baptised by the priests of Chambly or Belœil. Some of these catholic expatriates returned to Canada because of the poverty noted from 1808 by Mgr. PLESSIS. In 1833 some got ready to emigrate towards Lake Huron. In 1834 there are only about sixty families, in 1843 Mgr. BOURGET notes that they are still very poor. See Monty's Bay for François MONTY's history and Pointe aux Roches for Clément GOSSELIN. [Robert Larin, MSGCF]

Some established in Champlain and Chazy's region, among which Antoine Paulin, Alexandre Friot, François Monty, André Pépin, Amable Boileau, Théodore Chartier, Pierre Ayotte, JB Laframboise, Clément Gosselin, etc. [Monty p36]

Fort Lennox, - QC origin: Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond, Governor of Canada, in 1819 Reminder: constructed 1819-1829

Lewis Creek · abénaki toponyme: Sungahnee (dam with fish)

Ligonier Point - NY origin: John LIGONIER who had been the superior of Jeffrey AMHERST when this one began his career in the British army Site: bank E of Willsboro Point (latitude 44 ' 25 ")

Little Ausable River - NY · French toponyme : Rivière au Castor
River in the Beaver

Long Point - NY French toponyme : Pointe aux Pommes Point of Apples [card Franquet on 1752] Site: between Great and Little Chazy River

Mallett's Bay - VT
origin: captain Malet: Mailet Remember: this French captain lived in the region of 1774 until his death in 1790. Person with an independent character, rebellious to the English king and to governments of the American colonies. He refused to obey to the Peace treaty which gave is lands to the English. He welcomed rebels, spies and smugglers during the American Revolution. · Indian toponyme : Ouinouschick - Ouinieaski · English toponyme: Colchester Bay (1815)

Missisquoi River - VT · abénakis toponyme: Missisquoi ( grassy and swampy place) - Mississco - Michiscouy - Missisqui ( 1815 ) - Missisiak

Montgomery Fort Montgomery, - NY origin: English - American General Richard MONTGOMERY killed in 1775 in front of Quebec where his army was repelled. Reminder: nicknamed " Fort Blunder " because built, by mistake , in the North of the 45-th parallel separating Quebec of HAD. The construction begins in 1816, is abandoned having realized the error. In 1844 the construction starts again, they use some marble of Île Lamotte then abandoned. ( Louis Charbonneau's addition: one used stones to build the approaches of the bridge which crossed Richelieu to Rouses Point and many houses in Rouse's Point ; it is partially explains why it is half destroyed today). See

Mount Mansfield - VT · abénaki Place-name: Mozeodebewadso (the mountain with head of original)

Monty's Bay - NY · French toponyme: Baie de Montes Origin and reminder: François Amable MONTY was born in Chambly 20th feb 1736 of Jean and Marthe POYER de Chambly, then got married in Chambly the 21st jan 1760 to Josette BERGEVIN. 25 nov 1775 he undertakes teaching in Livingston's regiment intended to invade Canada, becomes a lieutenant in December 18, 1776, 1-st lieutenant 20 nov on 1777, hurt in Quaker Hill in August 29, 1778, dismissed in January 1-st, 1781, receives on 1787 a concession of 1 000 acres near Champlain in Monty Bay, Chazy. His wife and 6 children join him in 1783 after the war. In 1790, he still lives in Champlain with 3 sons, 2 daughters and his wife. Their daughter Marguerite marries on 1791 to the chief warrant officer Clément GOSSELIN. Their son Joseph is given a concession on 1783 in Chazy. He (F A M ) dies in Chazy 8 fév on 1809. See " " Le Petit Canada républicain " " for the history of the other French colonists involved with the American revolutionaries. [MSGCF p249 , 259-251]

Nicholson, Point - NY site: on the Hudson riv.

Nichols' Point Vt : across Deep bay. Good boat shelter on a south wind see photo

North Hero - VT · French toponyme: Isle Longue · English toponyme: Long Island.

North Point - NY · Ram's Head ( 1815 ) Site: limit S of Monty's Bay in NE of Pointe aux Roches

North West Bay - NY · French toponyme: : Baye du rocher fendu. · English toponyme: Bay of the Split Rock - Bessboro Bay

Otter Creek-VT · abénakis toponyme : Pecouktook (river cubit, serpent) - Pecunktuk · French toponyme: Rivière aux Loutres River of Otters. Reminder: the allocation of a seigneury to Sieur de CONTRECOEUR Jr, commander of infantry, is attested in 1734. RAMESAY fought against the American SCHUYLER and the Indians there. - 1-st shipyard of USA established in 1814 in Vergennes.They built there hurriedly warships which assured the victory against the English - Canadian in front of Plattsburgh 18 oct on 1814 - On June 29, 1709 RAMEZAY faces to Otter Creek John SCHUYLER, who always tries to provoke Iroquois against the Frenchmen.
Platte River, VT French Toponyme : Rivière la Plate. Abénaki Toponyme : Ouineaska
Reminder: the archaeological finds testify of an Amerindian house. Navigable river in 1776 (Map Brassier) Site: pours in Shelburne's bay
Plattsburgh - NY
Origine : Dutch founder Charles PLATT

Point au Fer - NY
French Toponyme: Pointe de Fer iron- Pointe au Feu Fire - Reminder: in the time of Champlain in 1705 this peninsula was almost an island, separated from Champlain and Rouses Pt by periodically submerged swamps. Since, the contribution of sediments by the Great Chazy riv, helped by the dominant winds of S, raised the bottom of banks. Swamps still surround the road to Point (e) au Fer. This point lines Kings Bay, in whom the depth decreases slowly but certainly year by year.
In 1760 a French-English confrontation took place. June 4, 213 Rangers de Robert RODGERS, left the anchored fleet enter Island Lamotte and Pte the Iron, settle down in King Bay on whalers, "boats" and small sloops 2.
On June 6 an expedition of 350 Frenchmen coming from l'Île aux Noix attacked at 11. 30 of the morning. RODGERS defended well his positions for 3 hours. Then the Frenchmen scattered away in the thick swampy forest of cedars. ( these swamps still exist ). Approximately 40 French died as well as 16 English, they were buried on Cloak Island. [Bellico p153]
In 1774 the British built a small 2 floor blockhouse of stone at Pointe au Fer;
in 1775 the Americans improved this outpost. During the British expeditions of 1776-7 Pointe au Fer served as place for gathering the troops.
Between 1776-1796 the British occupy this peninsula. [Bellico p424]
In 1776 Guy CARLETON begins an expedition against the Americans, at the beginning of October he sends troops to Pte au Fer. He built a blockhouse there, 4 companies stayed in garrison there. [Bellico p173]
In 1793 the war schooner Maria of the Canadian governor CARLETON is anchored there. [Bellico p289] In
1814 the American troops of MACDONOUGH use this well protected anchorage to prepare the history naval victory in front of Plattsburgh.
The water must have been deeper than ! On June 1-st, 1796 the place becomes American, by the enforcement of JAY's treaty which is a part of it of NY's state. [Bellico p173]

1944. Louis Charbonneau comes for the first time on lake Champlain on the family schooner … His father misses the red buoy and Le Captaine Némo (name of the boat) goes up the rocks just of the channel (west side). The author of this web site assures you that he has met with many other rocks on the lake …

Pointe aux Roches - NY
Reminder: Clément GOSSELIN, son of Gabriel and Geneviève CRÉPEAU, born in Ste Famille In June 12, 1747. 1st marriage at La Pocatière jan 22nd 1770 to M-Beuve DIONNE ( their descendants Germain and Louise BERNIER). 2nd marriage in CHazy at the beginning of 1791 (in front of magistrate McPHERSON ex-lieutenant rég HAZEN) to M-Catherine MONTY daughter François MONTY officer for the LIVINGSTON regiment. Thei marriage was validated in St Hyacinthe on May 12th , 1791, by priest DUROUVERAY after presentation of an exemption in April 5, 1791.
Gosselin Offered his services to Gén MONTGOMERY to participate in an attack South River (rivière du Sud against Seigneur de BEAUJEU. After the crushing defeat and Montgomery's death in front of Quebec, Clément Gosselin and his elder brother Louis and his father-in-law Germain DIONNE crossed through wood with an Indian guide along the Connecticut riv to join the American army of George WASHINGTON to White Plains NY. He participated under LAFAYETTE in the battle of Yorktown as captain in the HAZEN regiment; It was the victory of the Americans but Gosselin was seriously wounded then promoted chief warrant officer and dismissed honourably in June, July he leaves with 2 officers, his brother Louis, and Benjamin MOOERS the founder of the colonization of Pte aux Roches, and with 8 ex-soldiers of HAZEN's reg. They left Newburgh, then Fishkill Landing, sailed up Hudson, portage to Lake George and lake Champlain, until Pte aux Roches. On August 10, 1783 they became the pioneers of Clinton's Ct. In 1784 Clément and Louis GOSSELIN became 1st masons of Champlain by building the 1re house there. Louis is listed(counted) to Champlain with wife, 2 girls and a boy and died on August 7, 1823 [MONTY p 35 and 43]

Pottier's Point - VT · English Toponyme : Erkly's Point (Sauthier 1779)
Site: 2,5 miles in S of Burlington in Shelburne

Put's Creek bay(berry) · French Toponyme: Rivière à la Barbue (cat fish)[Franquet on 1752]

Put's Rock Site: just in S of South Bay Origin: Major Israel PUTNAN Rappel: This American serviceman escaped closely from being burned on a stake being saved in the last minute by a Frenchman, after had been by Amerindians at Fiddler Elbow in Champlain Narrows [Bellico p358 - Hill p67]
Richelieu, Fort Richelieu, of - QC voir Sorel

Richelieu, riv - QC origin: Cardinal Richelieu · French topnyme: Iroquois - St Louis - Chambly - St Jean - Sorel

Robinson Point · English topnyme: Halls (1815) Rock Dunder - VT · abénaki topnyme: Wujahose or Odziozo · mohawk topnyme: Rotsio

Rock Island - VT · Prospect Island ( 1815 ) Site: in S of Arnold Bay

Rocky Point - NY · French topnyme: Pointe aux Roches ( 1815 ) Site: extreme S of Long Point to Deep Bay

Rouses Point - NY origin: Jacques Roux, 1st colonist established in 1783. Reminder: The capt and the chief warrant officer Clément GOSSELIN commanded the "French Canadians" tat chose the American side in Moses HAZEN's reg during the war for independence ( 1775-1781 ).
The colony of Lower Canada had in mind of getting rid of the British, … Lafayette and others believed that the Americans would eventually help the "canadiens" in the search of their freedom, …
After this war the American Congress gave lands to GOSSELIN who resold one to another veteran, Jacques ROUX: ROUSE. [MSGCF on 1986 v37 p2427]

Royal Savage Inn - NY origin and reminder: name of a vessel of the American naval navy fleet against the British, scuttled oct 13, 1776 by English - American ARNOLD in Arnold's bay VT site: This inn in the charm NA of former days, is at the edge of the Salmon River.

Salmon River - NY · French Toponyme: Rivière au Canot (canoe river)
· English Toponyme: Mill Creek

Saranac River - NY · French Toponyme: Rivière Salasanac - Rivière St Amant

Savage Island · French Toponyme: Isle à la Couverte (Isle in the Covering)

Schenectady - NY · Dutch Place-name: Corlaer Rappel: in January 1690 the governor FRONTENAC wants to avenge the massacre of Lachine of August 1st, 1689, begins an expedition to destroy Fort Orange (Albany). He leaves with 210 men (114 French, 96 Indians) in snow shoes but in end of his journey makes a mistake about the road, succeeds a little on the West …He has to content himself (sic) of massacre of Schenectady, killing 60 English (men, women, children) and taking 80 prisoners on feb the 9th of 1690. On the way back, the chief warrant officer Peter SCHUYLER pursues them with 150 Agniers but abandons to Crown Point. French starving men had to eat some horses and boiled leather of boots. 6 starved to death and the others got lost. The English will take revenge by an attack on Laprairie. Reminder: Louis Joseph PAPINEAU taken refuge in USA during the " Revolt of the patriots in 1837 " he stayed a certain time in Schenectady as well as in Albany

Schuyler Island - NY · French Toponyme: Isle au Chapon (Isle in the Capon )

Scotch Bonnet Scotchman's Bonnet - Bason Point (1815) Site : au S de Basin Harbor
Shelburne Bay - VT · Indian Toponyme: Ouineaske Bay

Shelburne Point - VT · abénaki Toponyme: Quineaskatook ( long connection)

Sister Islands: Bixby Island, Young Island - VT · English Toponyme: The Brothers.
Site: E from Nichols Point to Grand-Isle. Rappel: oct 11th , 1759, French Joseph Payant ST-ONGE commands La Vigilante (The Watchful), a 70 tons schooner with Latin sails and 10 artillery, built by Nicolas René LEVASSEUR to St Jean in 1757 [Bellico p129]. Pursued by LORING on the Duke of Cumberland and Boscawen, been used by sandbanks around 2 islands Bixby and Young (O of Nichols Pt in SOUTH-HERO'S NO., lat 44 46 '), ST-ONGE plays a bad trick on the English in passing close to the islands in the right place, then runs away by leaving his adventurous prosecutors who, without suspecting anything, run aground [Bellico p111-2]

Sloop Island - VT origin: A pine was taken for the mast of a sloop by time of mist, during a naval battle between Brittish and Americans

Sorel - QC origin: Pierre de Saurel, commander of Fort Richelieu. Reminder: site of Richelieu's Fort built in 1642 by Montmagny, was burned by the Iroquois in 1642, reconstructed by SAUREL in 1665 [Franquet on 1752], reappointed Fort de Sorel - Site of the 1st Christmas tree of Canada, decorated by a German mercenary soldier in a moment of homesickness.

South Bay - NY · French Toponyme: Grande Baie. Site: in WHITEHALL'S NO., just N of Put Put Rock (see this term)

Split Rock - NY · abénaki Toponyme: Tobapsqua (get through the cliff) · French Place-name: Rocher Fendue (map Sauthier 1779, de Léry on 1748) · English Toponyme: Regiochne - Regeo Rock - Clover Rock - [Brassier on 1762 - Bellico p361]

St-Albans Bay - VT · English Place-name: Ballamaqueen Bay ( 1815 )

Ste-Anne Shrine - VT site: corner(place) NO. of the island Lamotte. Origine and French Toponyme: Fort Ste Anne, (today calm place) Reminder: Established in 1665 under TRACY during the summer by his 1st command Pierre Saint-Paul de LAMOTTE-Lussière, capt who will build the fort with 300 men of the régiment de Carignan; situated in front of the Chazy riv, he constitutes the 1-st European establishment of the Vermont, construction ended in July 20, 1665, dedicated the 26. So show the patch of it of the current site:
" " SITE OF FRENCH FORT STE ANNE, Vermont's oldest settlement. On this shore was the site of Fort Ste Anne built in 1666 [sic] by Capt Pierre La Motte for defense against the Mohawks. The Jesuits celebrated the first Mass and erected the first Chapel. Though not permanent, this stockade was Vermont's first white settlement "

Reminder: in 1666 during an expedition decided by Jean TALON and steered by Sr Rémy de COURCELLE, named a governor in 1665. He left Qc 9 jan with 400 men (among which 300 from the rég Carignan with snow shoes for the 1re time), 125 others joined in Trois Rivières and 80 in MTL. Some left Fort Ste-Anne on jan 21st but for lack of guides, instead of arriving in Iroquoisie this armed force arrived on February 9 in Corlaer (Dutch) (au Schenectady) with whom they were in peace. COURCELLE returns to Qc in March, 1666, having lost in this unfortunate expedition approximately 100 men(people) killed, harassed by Iroquois, 60 deaths of cold and famine, some are affected of the " blindness of snows ". [Hill p34 - Memories(reports) of Nicolas PERROT, p111-112 < 970.1 P461m >]

Reminder: in 1667, François Dollier de CASSON visits Fort Ste Anne. He had been capt of cavalry for the Maréchal TURENNE in France before joining the Sulpiciens, his physical force was exceptional. Arrived at Qc sept 7th 1766 he leaves 1 week later to accompany TRACY against Agniers as military chaplain; he was so broken by the traveling that he was not able to give help to a man who drowned. Not yet well from this 1re expedition, by a swelled knee and by a bad heavy loss practised by an honest surgeon, his superior François SOUART decides to send him(it) as chaplain to Fort Ste Anne. Although weakened leaves for Chambly after 1 only rest day with 2 soldiers of strong Chambly who had just arrived at MTL, as well as with Charles LEMOYNE, Mongeon de BRAGGAT and James LEBER who find risky to let him leave with only 2 soldiers. In Chambly the soldiers of the garrison refuse at first, due to the lack of courage, to follow him to Fort Ste-Anne but at the end of 24 hours, in front of his determination, he succeeds to persuade a dozen to accompany him. On CASSON's arrival capt LAMOTTE, Mr. De la DURANTAYE and the other officers rush to embrace him. 40 of 60 soldiers are affected by scurvy, already 2dead, some in the agony, having for food only some salty meat and some flour damaged during the Atlantic crossing. His obliging care allowed to save most of them. In Mtl father SOUART learns this state. He sends provisions, and several soldiers were repatriated in MTL's hospital. Premises were exigus and stinking, that is why CASSON made his "jogging" around Fort Ste Anne to fill his lungs of pure air. In spring, as the scurvy had been mastered and as Iroquois observed temporarily the peace, CASSON returns to MTL. [History of the MTL, by Dollier de CA [Histoire de MTL, par Dollier de CASSON, Hurtubise-HMH 1992 - DBC p 198-200].

St - Jean - QC · Fort St - Jean Rappel: Fort Ste-Thérèse (before 1667) was situated not far on the E bank of Richelieu little to the N of the l'Île aux Noix [Franquet on 1752]

St - Louis, Fort St-Louis - QC cf Chambly,

St-Ours, Fort St-Ours (bear), village - QC origin: Pierre de St-Ours. Reminder: This French officer commanded Fort St Frédéric (Crown Point, NY) from 1836 till 1739 and livedthere until 1741..

Ste Thérèse, Fort Ste Thérèse - QC site: just N l'Île aux Noix, on E bank of the Richelieu Remender: built by SALIÈRE en 1665

Sunset and Law Islands - VT · English Toponyme: The Two Sisters. Site: just NE ofColchester Pt, in S of Stave Island

Thompson's Point - VT
Toponyme français : Pointe Régiochêne
Ticonderoga, Hardly - NY · Amerindian Toponyme: Cheonderoga · French Toponyme: Fort Carillon. Reminder: French Period: on 1755-1759. Under the orders of the gouv VAUDREUIL, the construction ( 1755-1759 ) of Fort Carillon supervised by Michel Chartier Marquis de LOTBINIERE. In July, 1757 MONTCALM sends it 7 600 Frenchmen and 1 800 Indians.
MONTCALM gains in July 8, 1758 a victory against the English troops, even if ABERCROMBIE had 3 times the number of man. The site included a French colony and a garrison from 1755 to 1759.

English period: on 1759 in 1775. On July 3, 1759 the British general Jeffrey AMHERST conquered Fort Carillon and named it Ticonderoga. The French army under BOURLAMAQUE had the time to run away to l'Île aux Noix by water, on July 15, 1759 the last Frenchmen established on banks return to NF; HÉBÉCOURT blows up ammunitions and returns by boat to join his garrison and BOURLAMAQUE at l'Ile aux Noix. It marked the end of the " French regime " in the lake this occupation lasted 28 ans (since 1731).

American period: In 1775 English - American under the command of SCHUYLER seized Fort Ticonderoga in spring. In 1777 English - Canadian BURGOYNE invades the lake Champlain and recaptures the fort temporarily but eventually capitulated in Saratoga with 4 800 men on oct the 16th . prisoners were taken to Boston. Ticonderoga was established in a village different from Crown Point in 1804. Today historic site not to be missed.

Tracy - QC (near Sorel) origin: Alexandre de Prouville marquis de TRACY, general lieutenant of NF 1665-1667, born on 1603 and died on 1670 in France. Reminder: in 1666, tired by the empty peace negotiations with Iroquois, although 62-year-old, he starts up an expedition. With COURCELLE, CHAMBLY, LEMOYNE, CHAUMOND, SALIERES and BERTHIER, he mobilizes 600 soldiers of regiment de Carignan, 600 colonists and 100 Hurons and Algonquins. They accounted 110 man from Montréal as well as Dollier de CASSON who has just arrived to the country and joined as chaplain with the chaplain DUBOIS and the Jesuits ALBANEL and RAFEIX. They left Qc the 14th of September. This expedition of reprisals in Mohawk country, brought them up to lake Champlain then lake St - sacrament (lake George) but the Savages had run away for the greater part in wood. They applied the policy of the " earth burned to the ground " by setting on fire 4 villages having taken the corn for the starving troops. Iroquois prisoners hanged for the example. They retuned triumphantly (nevertheless without fight) to Qc on nov the 5th. Capt LAMOTTE kept fort Ste-Anne on isle Lamotte. Followed in 1667 a peace treaty for a long-term.

Vergennes - VT origin: being named(appointed) by Ethan ALLEN in honour of the count of VERGENNES, French statesman popular in that time. Let us remind that France helped the English - American to rebel against the British and the English - Canadian colony. Site: on the in Otter Creek reminder: it is smallest town of the US in surface: 1.25 x 1.5 mile. Incorporated into 1688, one of the oldest cities of NA (USA)

Westport - NY · English Toponyme: Bessboro. Origin: BESSBORO's name was given by William GILLILAND in 1765. Reminder: this Irish bases Bessboro ( Westport), Willsboro and Elisabethtown, Charlotteboro (old Jamesboro), Milltown, rewarded for these grants to have fought against Frenchmen and Indians. The real "realm" (kingdom) of this pioneer of the South of the lake was seized during the American Revolution. A peace treaty will follow in 1667 which this time will be long-term.

Whitehall - NY · Amerindian Toponyme: Kahphoquahna · French Topnyme: Petit Sault : Rappel: the " "petits rapides"" (small rapids) are by-passed by a lock · English Toponyme: Skenesborough ( 1761-1788 ) today. Reminder: in 1761 the colonel / chief warrant officer Philip SKENE obtains a concession directly from London in reward of his fights against the British and the Indian there, and bases the village in 1763. Considered one of the pioneers of the South of the lake, investigated Port Henry and established 1rst iron mines. His " personal realm " was seized by the American Revolution. 73 families with 1773.

William Henry, Fort - NY origin: baptized in 1755 by the British Sir William JOHNSON. Site: in the extremity S of the lake George Rappel: French expedition left March 22, 1757, in period of French occupation of the region, ends in the massacre of the lake George in April, 1757, MONTCALM easily defeated general WEBB and left on August 16

Willsboro Bay - NY · English Toponyme: Perue Bay · French Place-name: Baie Péru. Baie de Pichon ( 1776 Brassier) - Baie Péru. -- Baie du rocher fendu (split rock).

Willsboro Point - NY · French Place-names: Clocks(points,sticks) Sabousin Site: pte N of Willsboro's peninsula (lat 44 27 ')

Windmill Point - VT · French Place-names: Point of the bend. Site: West Alburgh Rappel: one found a constructed windmill stone by French. Mr. François FOUCAULT, sovereign member of council of Quebec, obtained a concession there in 1740. Some French houses were often burned there by the English. Winooski River - VT · abénaki Place-name: Ouinooskitook (river of the country of the ognion) - Ouinouschick - Ouinosque Wood Creek · French Place-name: river of the Stub

Reference BEACH AP on 1959 Lake Champlain have Centuries Pass. Lane Press, Burlington VT, 1959, 82 pages. The Beach family, the owner of the Basin Harbor Club, was a heir of a seigneury (grant) granted(tuned) by England. BEAUREGARD The population of the French Fort … BELLICO, Russell p. Chronicles of Lake Champlain, Journeys in War and Peace. Purple Mountain Press: Flischmanns NY, on 1999 (444p) Card BRASSIER on 1776 This card is reproduced in some of the works quoted Card FRANQUET 1752 Card of the lake Champlain and the riv of Iroquois and Isle of Montreal Carte SAUTHIER on 1779 This card is reproduced in some of the quoted works
Card SAUTHIER on 1779 This card is reproduced in some of the works quoted Card Joseph BOUCHETTE 1815 Produced for the English government of the QC, it includes the valley of the lake Champlain. Available on the SGCF COOLIDGE, GO The French activity(occupation) of the Champlain Valley from on 1609 to on 1759. Harbor Hill Books, Mamaroneck NY, on 1989. Original in 1938. 218 pages. The most complete source which I was able to find. HILL, Ralph Nader Lake Champlain, Key to Liberty. 2nd ed, Burlington Free Press and Vermont Life Magazine, Montpelier VT, 1981, 295 pages. Genealogical Robert de la Société Canadian-French [ MSGCF], summer, 1999, p 105 on the republican expatriates in New York Edmond MALLET The commander(major) Gosslin. Bulletin of Historic Searches(researches) 1898 v4 p6. [Attention on the numerous factual errors.] Ernest L MONTY MAJOR CLÉMENT GOSSELIN. French Canadian and Acadian Genealogical Review 1968 v1 n1 [ very well informed Article] Bernard OUIMET MSGCF (Attention! The source text was truncated.] 19 [1986, v37 p24, sur les canadiens français de l'état de New York

Ernest L MONTY MAJOR CLÉMENT GOSSELIN. French Canadian and Acadian Genealogical Review 1968 v1 n1 [ very well informed Article] Bernard OUIMET MSGCF 1986 , v37 p24, on the French Canadians of the state of New York MICROMETER Peter S History of Lake Champlain on 1609-1814. 4th ed, Harbor Hill Books, Harrison NY, 1983, 250 pages. Original in 1886. Nicolas PERROT Mémoire on the customs, coustumes and religion of the savages of northerly America.

This document by Pierre Biron and translated by Louis Charbonneau, sailer and geographer.

The corrections will bee done later ! ... I am going sailing for the summer on lake Champlain. No computor ! Louis. go to new page


On the Martyrs' Trail

for history of lake Champlain



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